of Technology History
Description of events
||Hand Tools - The earliest
hand tools made by early humans date from 250,000 BC and have been found across Africa,
Western Asia and Europe. These tools were hand axes which used flint or other stones as a
||First modern Homo sapiens in
what is now southern Africa.
||Neanderthal man begins the use of fire
and advanced tools
||Cro-Magnon man replaces
||Cro-Magnon man replaced by
||Rye Cultivation - Microfossils indicate
that people, in the area that is now Syria, were cultivating rye. There was a long period
(1000's of years) while people learned to successfully domesticate plants and animals for
||Squash Cultivation -
Microfossils indicate that squash was being cultivated in the area that is now Ecuador.
This was probably a form of slash and burn agriculture. (12)
||Pig Raising - Fossil evidence suggests pig
were being raised in the area that is now Turkey. Also there is evidence that people were
raising wheat here as well. (12)
||Squash Cultivation - Squash seeds indicate
that squash was being cultivated in the area that is now Mexico. (12)
- 4000 BC
||Semi-permanent agricultural settlements
appear in Asia and Europe. These are followed by the growth of cities and more advanced
skills, including pottery and improved cultivation.
||Cosmetics - Egyptians were
- Art and writing text from the periods indicate that people had learned how to
successfully dairy farm. (12)
||First phonetic writing -
Egyptians were using hieroglyphic writing on clay tablets (between 3300 BC and 3200 BC) to
record delivers of linen and oil to the King Scorpion I as a tithe tax. (10)
few hundred years (3000 BC) later the Sumerians in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys
develop the phonetic writing. The exact date of the beginning of Sumerian writing is in
||Forked Plows - Farmers in
Mesopotamia began using forked plows, which were much more effective tools for farming.
||Earliest surviving papyrus scroll
with writing, believed to be from Egyptians.
||The flush toilet was being used
by Minoan civilization in Crete.
Sutures - The Egyptians are believed to have begun the
use of needle and threads to sew up wounds.
||Chinese had developed inexpensive and strong paper.
This paper was made from rags, tree bark and hemp. Ts'ai Lun of the Chinese
court is credited with developing the first paper.
||Abacus was developed in China.
||Printing was in widespread use
for texts in China.
||Papermaking was introduced to
Japan from China.
||Paper was in use in Central Asia
||Paper has appeared in Egypt
||Chinese invent gunpowder.
||First movable type printing system with
clay characters is developed in China by Bi Sheng. (15)
||The decimal number system is brought to
Spain by Arabs. (15)
||Magnetic compass for navigation is
developed in China by Shen Kua a scientist. (15)
||The first European papermaking mill is
established in Spain.
||Guns are first manufactured in China. (15)
||Printed books made from metal type are
produced in Korea. (15)
||Johann Gutenberg (German) set up a press in Mainz and
started printing large Latin Bibles. He is also believed to have printed
smaller books and leaflets. Gutenberg was one of the first in Europe to use movable type
to make up a page. Printing spread through out Europe. Northern printers focused on
printing mainly religious books, while Italian printers focused on secular books.
"Gutenberg's critical invention was the his specially designed mold for casting
precisely similar pieces of type in large numbers." according the historian Daniel J.
Boorstin (in his book the Discovers). (15)
||The first color printing appears in use.
||Toothbrush appears in use in China. The
brush is made from hog bristles. (15)
||China bans new ship building technology. (15)
||Thermometer is invented by Galeleo. (15)
||Logarithms were developed by John Napier
(Scotland) making multiplying easier and this is still the foundation much of the
scientific and technical communicate based their calculations on.
||The slide rule was developed by William
Oughtred (England). The slide rule evolved to become the primary tool engineers and
scientist used to do their calculations until the development of calculators and computers
in the 1960's and 1970's.
||The first printing press in America was
assembled by Stephen Daye (a locksmith) and his son Matthew in Cambridge,
||Calculating machine is developed by Blaise
Pascal (France) to ease the work of his tax-collector father, but he finds no takers. It
is seen as too complicated. (15)
||The pendulum clock was developed by
Christian Huygens (The Netherlands).
||Mechanical calculator that can add, subtract, divide and
multiple is developed by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (German). (15)
||Anton van Leeuwenhoek (The Netherlands) discovered bacteria.
||Horse drawn mechanical drill to plant seeds
in rows is developed by Jethro Tull. (15)
||Steam Engine is developed by James Watt
Erasers are put on
pencils by Eberhard. (15)
||Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier (France) developed the first
hot air balloon.
process (called polyautography) was developed by Alois Senefelder in
||Prior to this point all
manufactured items were uniquely
assembled. Pieces were hand fitted together to make things work. Eli
Whitney impressed government officials when he took apart a dozen muskets,
scrambled the parts and then reassembled the weapons in working order.
Prior to this, muskets were each hand-tooled, and parts could not be
interchanged. Whitney's new manufacturing process, known as the
"uniformity system,". With this new manufacturing method, it
was now possible to create mechanical components that could be recombined
to produce new machines, setting the stage for the American Industrial
Revolution and improving manufacturing in
||The first practical batteries
were developed in the 1790's and first documentation was in a letter to the Royal Society
of London. (7)
The US government establishes the Library of Congress
in Washington D.C., United States.
||Karl D. Von Sauerbronn (German) developed the first
negative is developed by chemist Joseph Niepce (France). (15)
||Charles Babbage, England, created the
difference engine, which was the first mechanical computer.
||William Sturgeon (England) developed the electromagnet.
||The Leyden Jar was developed
at the University of Leiden. This was one of the first electrical capacitors and used to
store electrical charges.
||A laboratory model electric generator or
dynamo was developed by Michael Faraday (England).
||Hippolyte Pixii (France) developed a hand driven electric
||The first photograph was taken by William
Henry Fox. His camera focused light on to a sheet of paper covered with silver nitrate.
This began the field of photograph. Previously all images that people wanted to preserve
had to be drawn or painted by artists.
||First paperback books where introduced in
Tauchnitz Verlag Germany.
||William A. Bullock (American) developed a printing press
that printed from rolls of paper, rather than individual sheets. This
invention speed up the printing process.
||Charles Hall of the US developed the methods for refining Aluminum
using electrolytic action. This is the fundamental method used to day to manufacture
refined Aluminum. Previously it was not practical to make significant quantities of the
||Dynamite was developed by Alfred Noble
|Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (Russian) completed the
first of his numerous periodic charts of the elements. This was the foundation of the modern
periodic chart of the elements and included the know 63 elements, with spaces for
new elements predicated to be there. (Scientific American September
1998) Mendeleev was the first to publish his charts. At the same
time in Germany, Julius Lothar Meyer was also developing a periodic table for his
chemistry books that turned out to be very similar to Mendeleev's. Meyer's table did not
get published until 1870. Mendeleev claimed to be unaware of Meyer's table.
||John Wesley Hyatt (American) developed the first
plastic, cellulose nitrate. This material was patented and achieved a strong
||Joseph Glidden developed the most popular form of barbed
wire. The invention of low cost barbed wire made it feasible for farmers and
ranchers to fence in their land. The fencing in of open land lead to range wars in the
west between farmers and ranchers who had herds of cattle rooming over the open range
||Ferdinand Braun (German) discovered that,
under the right conditions, crystals can conduct electrical current in one direction, rectification.
This is a critical technology for controlling electrical currents and signals. This
technology was critical to the development of radios.
typewriter is invented by Christopher Sholes and is marketed by
||Sir William Preece, Chief Engineer of the
British Post Office said, "The Americans have need of the telephone,
but we do not -- we have plenty of messenger boys."
||Reinforced concrete was developed by
Joseph Monier. The material has become the foundation on which almost all modern
construction and buildings are based.
- Thomas Edison developed the phonograph for recording and playing back voices and sound.
Mr. Edison's photographs used a sound in the air to move a needle that carved a tin
cylinder to record the sound. To play back the sound, the needle followed the grove in the
tin and the sound was played back. This was the basis for all phonographs until the
invention of the audio CD in 1982. (15)
Louis-Paul Cailletet (French) succeeded in creating liquid
||The electric light bulb is patented by
Thomas Edison. (15)
||Gas lamps were the most widely used form
of lighting in London England. At that time the Economist (weekly newspaper) said that
"The electric light is very probably a great invention ..."
(May 20, 1882)
Some of the first electric appliances
were developed. Schuyler Wheeler (US) developed the electric fan. Henry
Seeley (US) developed the flatiron.
||The first modern bicycle was developed by
James Starley (England).
||Karl Benz (German) developed the first automobile
with an internal combustion engine. The engine was pretty slow with 250 rpm. Gottlieb
Daimler developed the first true automobile which was not just a carriage
with a motor added on.
||Typesetting machines were developed which
significantly reduced the time and work to set up the text for printing a page.
The dishwashing machine was patented by housewife
Josephine Corcoran (American). (15)
||Diesel Engines - Rudolf Diesel, a German
engineer, developed and patented the diesel engine. This engine was simpler then gasoline
powered engines because it used the pressure and heat from compressing the fuel in the
engine cylinders to ignite the fuel. Gasoline engines require an additional electrical
system and spark plug to produce a spark at the correct time to ignite the gasoline in the
The alternating current
generator was developed by Nikola Tesla (US). He also developed alternating
current electric motors. These have evolved to become the dominate type of
electric motor in common use today.
||Guglielmo Marconi (Italian) demonstrated the technology to
transmit a signal over a mile using radio waves. Marconi had thought that
the radio would be used only for ship to shore communication. Radio had been invented
earlier by Nikola Tesla.
||Liquefied hydrogen was produced by Prof.
Dewar. The hydrogen was cooled to -205C, and under pressure of 180 atmospheres. Then it
was released through a nozzle in a vacuum vessel. The liquid hydrogen was produced and
collected into another vessel.
||Dr. Felix Hoffman (German) discovered aspirin.
||The tractor was developed by Benjamin
||Guglielmo Marconi (Italian) used radio waves to transmit
the letter "S", in Morse code, from England to Newfoundland Canada. This was the
first step in practical radio communications and broadcasting.
King Gillette developed and successfully marketed the first safety
razor for shaving.
||Orville Wright becomes the first man to successfully fly
in an airplane powered by an engine. He traveled 120 feet in 12 seconds, with his brother
Wilbur watching. (15)
||Reginald Fessenden transmitted speech by radio.
||Alva Fisher (US) developed the washing machine.
||Lee De Forest (US) invented the triode amplifying
vacuum tube. The vacuum tube became the critical technology used to build modern
electronic equipment. The triode tube was the first practical method to amplify electrical
||Ernest Rutherford proposed the model of the atom.
||Albert Einstein completed his theory of general
||The first commercial radio broadcasts
from KDKA in Pittsburgh, PA.
||Vladimir Zworykin, Russian, developed the
first workable TV camera.
||Dr. Robert Goddard launch the first successful
liquid fueled rocket, in Auburn Mass.
Erik Rotheim of Norway invented the aerosol can.
||Jacob Schick (US) developed the first electric
||Chester Carlson (US) developed the technology for
projecting an image on to a charged positively metal plate, then dusting the plate with
negatively charged toner powder, then blowing away the extra toner with the toner
particles sticking to the plate where the image was, then transferring the toner image to
a positively charged piece of paper. The world's first electrophotographic image.
It was until 1946 that he was able to interest Rochester based Haloid Company in
developing products using the technology. Haloid called this technology xerography.
Carlson had gotten a physics degree from Caltech in 1930 and during the Great Depression
he could not work. In 1934 he started working at a law firm copying patent applications.
He found the work of copying so boring that he developed an obsessive desire to invent a
cheap and easy method of duplicating documents. (2)
||Enrico Fermi lead a large team that developed
the first nuclear fission reactor. This work was part of the Manhattan
project to develop nuclear weapons for World War II.
||The Mark 1 computer was developed for the
US Army by Howard Aiken
- Wernher von Braun (German) lead a team of engineers to develop a liquid fueled rocket
that could deliver a war head 200 miles. The rocket was named the V-2 or Vengeance-2 and
was used by the German war effort. They launched over 1000 rockets towards London England
between September 1944 and March 1945. Each rocket weighed over 12 tons at launch. This
was the first ballistic missile used in war. (20)
||Atom Bomb - A large team of engineers and
scientists, under the technical leadership of Robert Oppenheimer working on the Manhattan
Project, developed the first atomic bomb. The team was based at Los Alamos NM.They
detonated the first bomb July 16, 1945 at the Trinity NM test site. Later two bombs were
dropped on cities in Japan to force an end to the war with Japan, without a huge invasion
of the Japanese islands. (20)
||The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical
Integrator and Calculator) was developed by J. Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly (US).
||June 30th Bell Labs announced the invention of the
transistor. The transistor was developed by John Bardeen, William
Shockley and Walter Brattain (US) while working at Bell Labs. They were doing extensive
experiments with germanium. During an experiment with germanium Brattain discovered that
with two wires, two-thousandths of an inch apart the current flow was being amplified.
This was the critical discovery that lead to the modern transistors replacing vacuum
tubes. The transistor got its name because it is a device that transfers an electrical
signal across a resistor. (Sources - Bell Labs, Scientific American
||IBM projected that there would be a market for 10 to 15
computers world wide. At that time computers took some 18,000 vacuum tubes and typically
filled up a room.
||Univac - The Universal Automatic Computer
(Univac) was developed by J. Eckert and John Mauchly at Remington Rand. It was the first
time a computer was designed and built with the intention of producing multiple copies.
Their intention was to compete with the punch card machine business that IBM was dominate
in. Earlier computers had been designed and built especially for a specific project or
need. The first Univac customer was the U.S. Census Bureau. (18)
||Computers for election projections -
November 4th CBS worked with Remington Rand, and Max Woodbury a mathematician at Univ. of
Pennsylvania to project the winner of the presidential election. All the expert analysis
was pointing to a strong win for Adlai Stevenson over Dwight Eisenhower. However, by 8:30
PM the Univac I was projecting a win for Eisenhower. By the 1956 election, all the
networks were then using computers to help make election projections. (17)
||General Electric was the first business to buy a Univac to
process payrolls. (18)
||Satellites - October 4th the Soviet Union
launched Sputnik 1 into earth orbit. This was the first man made satellite
launch into orbit around earth. The first satellite was no larger than a basketball and
weighed 183 pounds. This launch was also proof that Russian nuclear missiles would have
enough range to hit the United States. (20)
Fortran - IBM shipped its first copies of Fortran
to customers. The work on Fortran was started in 1954 by John Backus (US) because he had
recognized that "a half to three-quarters of operating costs of a computer were from
programming and testing." (16)
||Charles H. Townes, Arthur L. Schawlos (US), Basov A.
Prokhorov (USSR) developed the theoretical work for lasers.
||Jack Kilby (US) working at Texas Instruments developed the
first working integrated circuit. He built a phase-shift oscillator. This
invention has become the critical foundation all modern electronic products are based on.
||The first work model laser
was invented by T.H. Maiman (US). At the time people were not at all sure of what value it
Haloid-Xerox (soon renamed to Xerox Corp.)
introduced the 914. The first push button plain xerographic paper copier.
This product based on technology developed by Chester Carlson and first demonstrated in
1938. Plain paper coping has transformed the ability of office workers to share and
communicate information. It also virtually eliminated carbon paper has a method for
offices to produce multiple copies of a typed document. (2)
||April 12th - Yuri Gagarin (Russian) was the first
human to orbit the Earth. (4)
May 5th - Alan
Shepard (US) made the first sub-orbital flight by the US space program. (4)
||Feb 20th - John Glenn (US) was the first
US astronaut to orbit the Earth. His total flight time was 4 hours 55 minutes. (4)
||Phillips Electronics introduced cassette
tapes and players.
||IBM introduced the IBM System 360.
This was one of the first mainframe computers built using Integrated Circuits. The IBM 360
went on to become the dominate mainframe computer for commercial applications.
||Computer Mouse - Doug
Engelbart demonstrated, in San Francisco at the Fall Joint Computer Conference, the
concepts of the computer mouse, which he referred to as "the bug", along with
windows and hypertext. This was before personal computers and was implemented using a
mainframe computer and having it generating images that were projected using a TV camera
and transmitted to a monitor. Mr. Engelbart was leading a team of researchers at SRI
(Stanford Research Institute). The ideas developed at SRI got used at Xerox Palo Alto
Research Center (PARC) in their development of office computers. These ideas were then
later incorporated into the Apple Mac and Microsoft's Windows software. (11)
Intel Corp started - Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore
started Intel with $2.5 million in capital. The startup funding was raised in two days.
The name Intel stood for "integrated electronics" and they had to buy the rights
to the name from a motel chain that had it.
It is estimated that there were some 30,000 computers
existing worldwide. Most of these were mainframe processors.
||Space Technology - July 20th,
Neil Armstrong was the first person to walk on the moon. (4)
Licklider at ARAP (Advanced Research Project Agency, DOD) drove ARAP to awarded a
contract to Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) to implement an experimental network to link
computers at Universities doing research. In September BBN delivered the first
computerized network switch (IMP) to UCLA. The second IMP was delivered to Stanford
Research Institute (SRI) in October and later to other sites including, UCSB and Univ. of
Utah. This is the beginning of the ARPANET and the beginning of the
worldwide Internet. The first ARPANET message between UCLA and
Stanford was a remote logon. (1), (9)
||The first commercial microprocessor. This
product from Intel (Intel 4004 with 2.3K transistors, speed 108KHz, 4 bits)
transformed the computing industry and all related technologies. It was introduced
November 15,1971. The first application of the 4004 was for powering the Busicom
calculator. The Intel 4004 was developed by Marcian "Ted" Hoff, Federico Faggin
and Stan Mazor. They were the first to integrate all of the core elements of a computer
into a single chip. (Note: Intel never did patent the microprocessor.) In 1969 Raymond
Holt and a team of 25 engineers working for the Navy on a classified project, developed a
microprocessor for the Navy's F-14A Tomcat fighter. This work did not become publicly
known until 1998.
is begun at the Illinois Benedictine College, with the goal of collecting as many texts as
possible in electronic format. These are now freely available over the Internet.
||Nolan Bushnell introduced the first computer video
game, Pong. It was a free standing game with two players, playing against each
other. The first games were installed in bars where they were highly popular. It is said
that in one of the first bars it was placed, the owners thought it was broken after a few
days. They found it so full of quarters that it could not take any more money.
RCA (US) developed the first compact disks.
The first Email message was sent over the
ARPANET by Ray Tomlinson (US) at BBN. He first had to figure out how to separate the Email
user name from the machine address. Tomlinson looked over the keyboard and decided to use
the @ key because it was a unique character that could not ever be in a user's name and it
meant "at". (1)
The ARPANET (Internet) had grown to 20 nodes. (9)
||First personal computer - In
Albuquerque, NM a small company, Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems (MITS)
created a small computer for personal use as a kit computer the customer
had to assemble. The
Altair, was brought to market using an Intel 8080 microprocessor, with 256
bytes of memory and user interface of a set of lights and panel switches.
The Altair sold for about $400. ( The name Altair comes from a star system destination of the Starship Enterprise from the
popular TV show Star Trek.) The kit was publicized in an issue of Popular
Electronics and within a month they were getting 250 orders a day for the
kits. MITS never caught up with the demand. Three years later when they
sold the company they still had not caught up with the customer demand and
were backordered. The computer caught the attention of two Harvard
students (Bill Gates and Paul Allen) who were able to convince the folks
at MITS they could make the computer more functional by writing some
software for it. Paul Allen was hired to head up software development for
Altair. Bill Gates and Paul Allen worked out the Basic compiler for the
Altair. MITS shipped over 50,000 Altair's before the first Apple computer
was ever created and shipped. (21)
||More than 60 sites are now linked
to the ARPANET. (1)
Public key cryptography was introduced by
Whitefield Diffie and Martin Hellman. (6) This form
of cryptography requires two keys to encrypt or decrypt information. One key is shared
publicly to everyone and the other key kept private. Without both keys the information can
not be used. This technology was a critical enabler for the development of PGP (Pretty
Good Privacy) the first publicly available fairly strong encryption technology.
||July 20th - Viking 1 landed on Mars and was the first
craft from Earth to land on another planet. (4)
||Apple II comes to the market. This was
one of the first highly popular PC products. (8)
||VisiCalc, the first electronic
spreadsheet, comes to market making the Apple II a useful business tool. (8)
||The IBM PC was introduced. This PC was
designed with common industry components using a CPU from Intel. The IBM PC did not have
any significant proprietary features which locked out other firms from make compatible
PC's. The IBM PC design became the standard PC design that all the other high volume PC
companies had to duplicate. The IBM PC user interface was text based and built using Microsoft
April 12th - The first space shuttle was launched. The ship was piloted by
John Young. (4)
||November - Lotus 123 - Mitch Kapor and
Jonathan Sachs introduced Lotus 123, a new spread sheet program to compete with VisiCalc.
The product was released on Jan. 26, 1983. They sold more than 60,000 copies in the first
month and the product helped the IBM PC become a successful PC platform.
Audio CD - Sony and Philips develop the Audio CD
for music and records. The CD holds up to 74 minutes of music. It is said that this size
was established so a complete recording of Beethoven's 5th or 9th symphony can be recorded
on one CD. Sony's chairman, at that time, was a very big Beerhoven fan.
||The Apple Mac was introduced. This PC was
highly proprietary. The design and operating systems were control by Apple. No other
company could build and sell Mac's. The Mac was one of the first high volume computers to
use a windowing operating system and a mouse to interact with it. (8)
- Parke Lightbown builds a computer application that runs from a computer-based version of
the compact disc. Until this point the CD's had only been used for music.
||October - Intel introduces the 80386
DX microprocessor. This 2.5 MIPS processor becomes a volume processor for a new
generation on PC. The 386 processor allowed software programs to expand beyond the 650KB
limits of earlier generations. With 386 PC's software programs could now support up to 4MB
memory systems. (8)
November - MS Windows 1.0 - Microsoft shipped its
first Windows product as a step up from character based MS DOS. The product had been
announced in October 1983. The product had to work on PC's with 256KB memory and dual
floppy disks (5.25" - 360KB). This was the typical PC used at that time.
||January 28th - Shuttle
rocket Challenger explodes during the launch killing the entire crew. (4)
||MS Windows 2.0 -
Microsoft shipped its second version of windows.
||ARPANET is shut down,
as the Internet has grown to eclipse the need for the ARPANET. (1)
- Intel introduces the 80486 microprocessor. This 1.18 M transistor, 20
MIPS processor becomes highly successful for the new generation on PC. This is the first
microprocessor to offer a built it math coprocessor. (8)
The PC industry shipped some 21M PC's
(world-wide) during the year. (8)
||Irving Weissman (US) discovered human
stem cells for blood in bone marrow. These cells give rise to the full range of
blood cells needed in the human body.
introduced Windows 3.1 to the market. Pervious versions of Windows had been
market failures and Windows 3.1 addressed many of the problems, to become the leading high
volume user interface for PC's. Windows 3.1 built on a number of ideas used in the Apple
Mac. Microsoft licensed technologies from Apple for this new version. (8)
The World Wide Web was developed by the
efforts of Tim Berners-Lee and physics researchers at CERN (European Laboratory for
Particle Physics) in Geneva Switzerland. Their goal was to allow non-technical users to
access data and information from online systems without the need to learn specialized
commands and instructions. Tim Berners-Lee developed some of the core technology for the
World Wide Web (URL's, HTML, HTTP) as an easy way to share information across different
Linux - Linus Torvalds (Finland) developed
a Unix like kernel operating system for the Intel 386 (with 4MB of RAM). He was an
undergraduate student at the University of Helsinki. Linux was released posted on the
Internet for the public world to use with a copyleft license. This allowed everyone to use
it at no charge, but all improvements had to be given back to the community of users and
developers. The software 1991 only ran on Intel systems. (13)
||Digital Equipment Corp. announced its first 64 bit
microprocessor architecture, the Alpha microprocessor and its first
microprocessor in the family the 21064. (5)
The PC industry shipped some 32M PC's (world-wide)
during the year. (8)
The Internet was opened up to commercial business
over the Internet. Prior to this point the Internet was only suppose to be used
research and educational uses. (9)
||Web Browsers have become the dominate way
to share information over the Internet. Web browsers are being developed by numerous teams
and companies through out the world.
graphical web browser, Mosaic, is developed by a small team at the University of
March - Intel introduces the Pentium processor.
The initial Pentium chips supported some 75 MIPS of processing power. (8)
Intel and Hewlett Packard form a partnership to build an
generation of 64 bit computing, Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) based on
technologies from both companies. This is the product family that later has become Intel's
IA-64 family of processors. (The first processor based on this technology
is expected in mid year 2000.) (5)
||Jim Clark and Marc Andresus form Netscape Communication
Corp. and recruits the team of people at University of Illinois who built Mosaic. They
adapt Mosaic as their product Netscape Navigator. Netscape broadly
distributes Navigator freely on the Internet. (1), (9)
||More than 20 million people are on-line
through the Internet. Numerous companies are formed to provide Internet dial-up access,
including American Online, Prodigy, CompuServe. At the same time BBN, MCI and others take
over responsibility for the Internet backbone network from the National Science
August 24, Microsoft introduces Windows 95 for the Intel PC
family of computers.
Linux - Support is now provided for
Digital Alpha processors and Hewlett Packard systems. (13)
||Java programming language was introduced
and marketed by Sun Microsystems. Java is positioned as the language to develop new
software in. Developers would now be able to "write once and run everywhere." By
1998 there are some 117 implementations of Java Virtual Machines on different computer
||Some 50 million people are on-line and
now using the Internet. (1)
IBM's Deep Blue computer defeats the world chess champion,
Gary Kasparov in a match. This is the first time a chess playing computer has been able to
defeat a world champion chess player. (8)
||April - It is estimated that there are some 200M
to 320M distinct web pages, not counting the ones that are in databases and web
applications that generated on demand. Also, 40% of the people in the US have a PC.
International Data Corp. estimated that as of May 1998 there were 92M
Internet users and there were some 528M URL's on the Internet
with some 120M devices connected to the Internet. (3)
The PC industry is expected to ship some 100M
PC's (world-wide) during the year. (8)
October - John Glenn returned to Earth orbit for 7
days as part of a US Space Shuttle mission. John Glenn was the first US astronaut
to orbit the Earth and at 70, is the oldest man to orbit the earth.
IDC's estimate of Web users is now at 97.3 million and is
forecasting that it will grow to 131.4M in 1999.
||Brain Stem Cells - Jonas Frisen (Swedish)
and Swedish researchers have identified stem cells in the adult brain that grow into nerve
cells. This opens up the research quest to find ways to grow nerve cells for the treatment
of brain diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease and spinal injuries. (14)
||March - Intel and AMD both started shipping PC
CPU chips running at 1 Gigahertz processor speed. These chips are
about 500 times faster than the first generate of CPU chips introduced 25
years (1974) ago with a clock speed of 4.77 MHz and .33 MIPS of
performance. PC's with these new chips will be delivering 3,042 MIPS or a
9000 times improvement. Where will we be in 25 more years?
British scientists have successfully cloned
5 piglets from one adult pig. This is a major breakthrough in cloning
since their techniques seemed to be much more repeatable than the first
efforts at cloning mammals.
June 22 - Water on Mars - NASA
announced that based on a new study using high resolution
photographs from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, scientist have
spotted gullies and trenches and fanlike deltas that could have been
carved by fast-moving water flowing down cliffs and the steep walls of
craters. That liquid water once existed on Mars is generally accepted by
scientists, but Michael Malin said his new study suggests strongly that
water flowed on the Red Planet very recently and, perhaps, even now. He
bases this on photos showing gullies and rills the look very much like
similar water-carved features on Earth. (22)
June 26 - Map of the Human Genome -
Detailed mapping of the human genome has been completed by teams around
the world. This map provides a detailed look at some 90% of the human
genome. Scientists will be able to use this map to find and sequence